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Solana price bitcoin history before halvingsoars after mainnet launch

That could spell the end of Bitcoin, but even a so-called 51% attack would probably not enable the bad asonic adventure gold keyctors to reverse old transactions because the proof of work requirement makes that process so labor-intensive. To go back and alter the blockchain, a pool would need to control such a large majority of the network that it would probably be pointless. When you control the whole currency, with whom can you trade?A 51% attack is a financially suicidal proposition from the miners' perspective. When GHash.io, a mining pool, reached 51% of the network's computing power in 2014, it voluntarily promised to not exceed 39.99% of the Bitcoin hash rate in order to maintain confidence in the cryptocurrency's value. Other actors, such as governments, might find the idea of such an attack interesting, though. But again, the sheer size of Bitcoin's network would make this overwhelmingly expensive, even for a world power.

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Another source of concern related to miners is the practical tendency to concentrate in parts of the world where electricity is cheap, such as China, or, following a Chinese crackdown in early 2018, Quebec.Bitcoin TransactionsFor most individuals participating in the Bitcoin network, the ins and outs of the blockchain, hash rates, and mining are not particularly relevant. Outside of the mining community, Bitcoin owners usually purchase their cryptocurrency supply through a Bitcoin exchange. These are online platforms that facilitate transactions of Bitcoin and, often, other digital currencies.El Salvador made Bitcoin legal tender on June 9, 2021.1 It is the first country to do so. The cryptocurrency can be used for any transaction where the business can accept it. The U.S. dollar continues to be El Salvador’s primary currency.Bitcoin exchanges such as Coinbase bring together market participants from around the world to buy and sell cryptocurrencies. These exchanges have been both increasingly popular (as Bitcoin's popularity itself has grown in recent years) and fraught with regulatory, legal, and security challenges. With governments around the world viewing cryptocurrencies in various ways—as currency, as an asset class, or any number of other classifications—the regulations governing the buying and selling of bitcoins are complex and constantly shifting.

Perhaps even more important for Bitcoin exchange participants than the threat of changing regulatory oversight, however, is that of theft and other criminal activity. Though the Bitcoin network itself has largely been secure throughout its history, individual exchanges are not necessarily the same. Many thefts have targeted high-profile cryptocurrency exchanges, often resulting in the loss of millions of dollars worth of tokens. The most famous exchange theft is likely from Mt. Gox, which dominated the Bitcoin transaction space up through 2014. Early in that year, the platform announced the probable theft of roughly 850,000 BTC worth close to $450 million at the time. Mt. Gox filed for bankruptcy and shuttered its doors; to this day, the majority of that stolen bounty (which would now be worth a total of about $8 billion) has not been recovered.Keys and WalletsAn introduction to crypto loans

The other side of lending is of course borrowing. If you are interested in taking a loan out (for USD for example) many of the providers above also provide that service.Most major Lending and borrowing protocols across both CeFi and DeFi require borrowers to lock up an asset in order to take out a loan. These types of loans are called collateralized loans.Collateralization is a borrower’s commitment to pledge a number of assets as a means for a lender to recoup their capital in the instance that the borrower defaults on the loan. If a borrower continually missed payments on a loan obligation then the lender has the right to possess the collateral pledged in the case that the loan defaults.Collateralized, or more specifically 'overcollaterized loans', are at the core of efficiently operating DeFi lending markers. DeFi lending protocols enable open, permissionless, and pseudo-anonymous financial services. There are no credit score requirements for borrowers and generally no formal KYC or AML requirements.

In order to maintain a balance between open access and systemic stability the value of the collateral that needs to be pledged for DeFi loans has to exceed the value of the loans. If for example, a DeFi user wants to directly take out a USD100 DAI loan on Makerdao, they need to put up at least USD150 worth of Ethereum.Borrowing from DeFi protocols can often be a precarious and time-intensive process that goes beyond simply paying back interest in installments.

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The loan-to-value ratio (LTV) needs to be carefully monitored to ensure that the collateralization requirement that was agreed upon before the loan was executed is maintained. Maintaining this LTV ratio is made more difficult if borrowers put up volatile assets like ETH as collateral. If the value of ETH changes suddenly in US dollar terms, loans can be liquidated very quickly and borrowers are not protected by mechanisms that exist like loan insurance.For these reasons, due to the complex nature of unique specific DeFi protocol agreements that go beyond interest rate payments, BNC has chosen not to include details around DeFi protocol borrowing rates.Programmable Money: Tools that find the best interest rate for you automaticallyThese days yield optimization platforms like Yearn.finance exist. They use the Ethereum blockchain’s capabilities to facilitate programmable money to make it easier for users to find optimal interest rates automatically. Before Yearn, users seeking to maximize their yields needed to manually move their stablecoins between lending protocols. A slow, labor-intensive process that Yearn aims to avoid.

The protocol works by creating pools for each asset that is deposited. When a user deposits their stablecoins into one of these pools, they receive yTokens that are yield-bearing equivalents of the coin that was deposited. If for example, a user deposits DAI into the protocol it will issue back yDAI.Assets are automatically shifted between lending platforms in the DeFi ecosystem like Compound and Aave, where interest rates for deposited assets change dynamically. Every time a new user deposits assets into a pool on Yearn, the protocol checks whether there are opportunities for higher yield and rebalances the entire pool if necessary. At any time a user can burn their yDAI and withdraw their initial deposits and accrued interest in the form of the original deposit asset.The protocol has evolved to offer more complex solutions that can efficiently maximize yields on user deposits. The yCRV liquidity pool built by Yearn on the Curve finance platform contains the following yTokens: yDAI, yUSDC, yUSDT, yTUSD and pays back a yCRV token that represents the index. Users can deposit any of the four native stablecoins into the pool and earn interest back from yield-bearing yCRV tokens. Depositors also earn trading fees from Curve for providing liquidity to other users of the platform.This year Solana has soared from the 26th largest asset by market capitalization to the 6th. So what’s behind the rise of Solana and what can technical analysis tell us about Solana’s near term price potential?

Summer 2021 in the crypto markets has been defined by the eye-popping growth of platform blockchains. Four out of the top ten assets on the Brave New Coin market cap table, Ethereum (ETH), Binance Coin (BNB), Cardano (ADA), and Solana (SOL), are the native tokens of platform blockchains. It’s not just the token market cap that is growing, large sums of money are also flowing into these platform blockchains to be used on-chain. Defi Lama reports that the total value of assets locked (TVL) into platform blockchains currently sits at ~US$179 billion. This represents a new all-time high and is up ~54% in the last three months. The newest of the platform blockchains to break into the Brave New Coin market cap top 10 is Solana. Just six months ago it was the 26th largest asset in the crypto space with a market capitalization of ~US$3.63 billion and the Solana price was US$13.88. Today, SOL is the 6th largest asset in the crypto space with a market capitalization of ~US$55.53 billion and the SOL price is US$187.89.The market cap of SOL has grown 1,264% and its price has risen 1,125%. The asset continues to hit new all-time highs on a daily basis. The following article looks at the growing Solana ecosystem, considers the reasons for its strong performance in 2021, and examines what the technicals say about the Solana price.

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Solana has been one of the most resilient, alpha-generating crypto assets of 2021. On a brutal day of trading for the wider crypto markets, the September 7th flash crash saw Bitcoin (BTC) fall by ~10%, Ethereum (ETH) by ~14%, and Cardano (ADA) by ~16%. Solana was a fortress of strength for its holders during this period. Incredibly, the SOL price increased by ~7% as the rest of the market tanked.What is Solana?

Solana (SOL) is a platform blockchain that focuses on delivering fast, cheap, and scalable smart contract solutions. The network has been described as idiosyncratic because of the unique method it uses to order transactions and achieve higher blockchain throughput. The network is powered by the SOL token which is used to interact and transact with the Solana blockchain.Solana was founded by Anatoly Yakovenko in 2017. Yakovenko worked for Qualcomm and Dropbox before building Solana. Along with co-founders Greg Fitzgerald and Eric Williams, Yakovenko sought to build a blockchain that solved the throughput and scalability issues inherent with Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH), but without any trade-offs.Solana is a third-generation blockchain (as are Cardano, Tezos, and Polkadot). It seeks to challenge the incumbent centralized, legacy financial network by learning from and improving the architecture used by first and second generation blockchains such as Bitcoin and Ethereum.Solana is currently running at approximately 1600 Transactions per second (TPS), which compares favourably to Ethereum which runs at 14 TPS. As the above table indicates, however, both networks are capable of processing higher throughputs. Solana is theoretically capable of a much higher throughput of up to 65,000 transactions per second (TPS).Much of the buzz surrounding Solana stems from the impressive performance capabilities of its blockchain network product. It offers fast transaction times at extremely low fees. Compared to other high throughput networks such as the Binance Smart Chain, Cardano, and Cosmos, it is also relatively decentralized having just over 900 validators.Popular business and investment blogger Packy Mcormick writes glowingly about the Solana user experience in his blog, “the proof is in the experience,” he writes. “I’ve spent a bunch of time playing around with Solana - purchasing SOL on FTX.US, downloading a Phantom wallet, staking and unstaking, buying RAY on Raydium and staking that, and I have to say… It's really fast and really cheap. You don’t need to think twice about doing anything because it moves so quickly and costs so little. That’s the point. It feels like using the internet.”

Solana price soars after mainnet launchThe Solana mainnet was launched in March 2021 and the network has rapidly gained users since then.

The Total Value Locked into Solana DeFi has risen parabolically to US$5.67 billion. In the last three months, this number has risen by 534%. The most popular DeFi applications on Solana are Sayber and Raydium, two decentralized exchanges. Sayber, the top DeFi application on Solana, uses the Automated Market Maker model popularized by DeFi on Ethereum.Solana’s Non-Fungible Token ecosystem is also booming. On August 15th the launch of the Degenerate Ape Academy collection on the Solana chain capitalized on the NFT boom. The collection, made up of 10,000 pictures of cartoon apes, sold out in eight minutes. The overall volume reached almost 96,000 SOL on the day and in just over three weeks the total value of sales reached 774,000 SOL. At current Solana prices this equates to approximately US$134 million. The current floor price for Degenerate Apes is 83 SOL with the cost to mint Apes initially costing 6 SOL.

Another popular NFT art collection is SOL Punks, the total value of sales has now reached 355,400 SOL. The floor price for SOL Punks is 14.85SOL. While the volume for Solana’s top collectible art projects is impressive, a knock against both of them is that they too closely resemble the two top NFT collections on Ethereum, Bored Ape Yacht Club, and CryptoPunks. One reason for the success of the Solana collections is the limited number of CryptoPunks and Bored Apes created on Ethereum. Degenerate Ape Academy and Sol Punks have created a second chance for NFT collectors to take part in the booming NFT market.One possible drag on the Solana ecosystem is that it uses an alternative coding language to Ethereum and it is not EVM compatible. Unlike on the Binance Smart Chain, where projects can essentially copy-paste what has already been built on Ethereum and use the same Solidity tooling, Solana developers need to start from scratch. Solana is written in Rust, which has far fewer Dapp building developers on it than Ethereum.

One of the biggest issues with using Solana is the lack of multifunctional block explorers or analytics platforms such as Etherscan. Analytics or data for fundamental analysis for the Solana blockchain is very limited - something the Solana development team says it is working towards fixing.One positive consequence of Solana’s lack of EVM compatibility is there are far fewer cash grabs and scams on it than there are on direct Ethereum clone platforms like the Binance Smart Chain.One of the reasons Solana stands out from other platform blockchains is its unique architecture and technology base. Solana is a Proof-of-Stake blockchain that uses the same hashing function as Bitcoin, SHA-256. It uses a unique, trustless way to determine the time of a transaction called Proof-of-History (PoH).The SHA-256 algorithm takes inputs from users and encrypts them to produce a unique output that is difficult to predict. Solana takes the output of a transaction and uses it as the input for the next hash. The order of the transactions is now inbuilt into the incoming hashed output. This is different from how the Bitcoin blockchain operates.

The Solana PoH hashing process creates a long, unbroken chain of hashed transactions. This is designed to create a clear and verifiable order of transactions so that when a validator adds to a block, they don’t need to use a conventional timestamp.Blocks on the Bitcoin blockchain are large and unorganized. Each BTC miner adds the time and date to the block they mine based on their local time. Other nodes in the network then have to verify that the timestamp provided by the miner is valid because it may be false or differ from the time reported by other miners. This is time-consuming.

By ordering transactions into a chain of hashes, however, Solana validators are able to process and transmit less information per block. Having that hashed version of the latest state of transactions constantly recorded greatly reduces the time to confirm each block on the Solana chain. Transactions on Solana are verifiably ordered without all nodes needing to agree simultaneously. This is a key reason why it is so quick.Proof-of-History combines with other features of Solana to optimize and speed up throughput. For example, TowerBFT is Solana’s version of a Byzantine fault-tolerant Proof-of-Stake consensus model that uses the cryptographic clock enabled by PoH to speed up blockchain consensus by reducing messaging overhead and transaction latency. Selecting the next Proof-of-Stake node to validate a block of transactions becomes faster because nodes need less time to verify the order of transactions.

In a blog post from July 2019, Anatoly Yakovenko describes eight key innovations that make Solana “the First Web-Scale Blockchain”. Aside from Proof-of-History and Tower BFT (more on those later), the six other key innovations are:Turbine — a block propagation protocol

Gulf Stream — a mempool-less transaction forwarding protocolSealevel — parallel smart contracts run-timePipelining — a transaction processing unit for validation optimizationCloudbreak — a horizontally-scaled accounts database

Archivers — distributed ledger storageWhen combined, these features allow Solana to offer transactions and fees at a speed and cost much lower than other smart contract platforms.

SOL staking for yield farmingAs mentioned, Solana is a proof-of-stake blockchain with a focus on delegations. This means that anyone who holds SOL tokens can choose to delegate some of their SOL to one or more validators, who process transactions and run the network. SOL users need to stake or lock up their tokens with a validator.

In mid-June Staking Rewards.com listed Solana as the fourth-largest blockchain by value of assets staked - with US$13,475,960,413 staked. The Cardano, Polkadot, and Ethereum blockchains were all ahead of it at the time. Today, Solana is the largest staked network with US$67,075,392,728 staked on it. This is an almost 400% rise in value staked.The current estimated interest rate for SOL holders who delegate their tokens to a validator is 6.4%. Adjusted for the inflation rate of network supply, however, this interest rate drops to 0.95%. According to Staking Rewards, validators running a Solana Node will earn an interest rate of 7.05% but once adjusted for network supply inflation this drops to 1.95%.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster